Pre-COVID-19, the Cultural and Creative Sectors (CCS) were already characterised by fragile organisational structures and working practices. The fragmented organisation of value chains, the project-based working and the (not well-protected) Intellectual Property (IP)-based revenue models are only a few elements contributing to this.
Since the COVID-19 pandemic hit Europe in spring 2020, the CCS have been among the most negatively affected sectors. The containment measures that have been put in place throughout the EU have led to a chain of effects, severely impacting the economic and social situation in the CCS. Especially the venue- and visitor-based sub-sectors such as the performing arts and heritage were most severely hit. Furthermore, the crisis has highlighted the very vulnerable position of many non-standard workers in the CCS, such as artists, freelancers or temporary workers.
This study analyses the so far effects of the crisis on the CCS, as well as the policy responses that are formulated to support the sectors. Based on the analysis, policy recommendations are formulated to further improve the resilience of the CCS in Europe in the medium and longer term.